中国康复理论与实践 ›› 2023, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (1): 20-29.doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2023.01.004

• 专题 儿童心理与行为康复 • 上一篇    下一篇

身体活动干预儿童青少年执行功能效果的系统综述

王宇, 贺刚, 黎东升, 马恺悦, 王超()   

  1. 首都体育学院运动科学与健康学院,北京市 100191
  • 收稿日期:2022-10-01 修回日期:2022-12-19 出版日期:2023-01-25 发布日期:2023-02-17
  • 通讯作者: 王超(1978-),女,汉族,河北秦皇岛市人,博士,副教授,主要研究方向:身体活动与健康促进,E-mail: wangchao@cupes.edu.cn。
  • 作者简介:王宇(1991-),男,汉族,江苏淮安市人,硕士研究生,主要研究方向:儿童青少年身体活动与健康促进。
  • 基金资助:
    1. 北京市朝阳区社会发展科技计划项目(CYSF2010);2. 北京高等教育本科教学改革创新项目(201910029003)

Effect of physical activity on executive function of children and adolescents: a systematic review

WANG Yu, HE Gang, LI Dongsheng, MA Kaiyue, WANG Chao()   

  1. School of Kinesiology and Health, Capital University of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing 100191, China
  • Received:2022-10-01 Revised:2022-12-19 Online:2023-01-25 Published:2023-02-17
  • Contact: WANG Chao, E-mail: wangchao@cupes.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    Beijing Chaoyang District Social Development Science and Technology Plan(CYSF2010);Beijing Higher Education Undergraduate Teaching Reform Innovation Project(201910029003)

摘要:

目的 系统分析身体活动对儿童青少年执行功能的干预效果,并对影响干预效果的因素进行梳理。

方法 检索2010年1月1日至2021年6月30日中国知网、万方数据库、Google Scholar、Wiley Online Library、PubMed中对儿童青少年执行功能进行身体活动干预的文献,经筛选、质量评定后,进行系统综述。

结果 最终纳入21篇文献,来自11个国家,包含13项随机对照试验,涉及2 496例研究对象,年龄5~18岁,文献发表日期主要集中在2010年至2019年,物理治疗证据数据库量表平均分5.57分。身体活动类型主要包括体能、技能和运动项目三类,活动强度为低至高强度,每次8~120 min,每周1~5次,时间最长10个月。身体活动可以有效改善执行功能,主要改善抑制控制、工作记忆和认知可塑性,体现在完成认知任务的准确率提高、反应时缩短,双侧前额叶皮质活动增加等。影响干预效果的因素包括身体活动类型、活动组织形式、活动强度、单次活动持续时间、活动频率和周期、干预对象的选取、执行功能指标的选取等。

结论 身体活动可以改善儿童青少年的抑制控制、工作记忆和认知可塑性。影响干预效果的因素主要为身体活动要素、研究对象自身因素以及试验设计因素。

关键词: 身体活动, 执行功能, 儿童, 青少年, 系统综述

Abstract:

Objective To analyze the effect of physical activity on executive function of children and adolescents, and sort out the related factors.

Methods Articles about physical activity intervention for children and adolescents on executive function were retrieved from CNKI, Wanfang Data, Google Scholar, Wiley Online Library and PubMed, from January 1st, 2010 to June 30th, 2021. The articles were screened, evaluated and systematically reviewed.

Results A total of 21 articles were included, from eleven countries, including 13 randomized controlled trials, involving 2 496 subjects, aged five to 18 years. The articles were published from 2010 to 2019, with mean score of Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale as 5.57. The physical activity intervention mainly involved physical fitness, skills and sport games, with low to high intensity, eight to 120 minutes a time, one to five times a week, no more than ten months. Physical activity was indicated to improve the executive function, specifically inhibition control, working memory and cognitive flexibility, such as the improvement of the accuracy and reaction time of cognitive tasks, and activation of bilateral prefrontal cortex activity. Types, intensity, duration, frequency and cycle of physical activity, participant selection, and assessment tools were related to the effect of intervention.

Conclusion Physical activity can improve the inhibition control, working memory and cognitive flexibility of children and adolescents. The main factors related to the intervention effect are the physical activity elements, the participant's factors and the experimental design factors.

Key words: physical activity, executive function, children, adolescents, systematic review

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