Objective To explore the impact of e-sports activities on adolescents' health based on International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), and conduct a systematic review of health condition and functioning, interventions and outcomes.
Methods The ICF was used to systematically analyze the physical and mental health and functional impact of adolescents engaging in e-sports activities. Using the keywords and subject heading search method, articles about e-sports, health condition, functioning, functional rehabilitation (intervention) and outcome were searched in CNKI, VIP, Wanfang Database, PubMed, Web of Science and EBSCO from establishment to February, 2022. Systematic review had been adopted for literatures scanning, selection, quality review, and literature synthesis. ICF framework and WHO-FICs coding system were used to analyze the literatures in the fields of e-sport participants' main health condition and health-related conditions, functioning, interventions, and outcomes (health conditions and functioning).
Results and Conclusion Eight literatures from six countries had been finally included, mainly in the fields of clinical medicine, rehabilitation sciences, sports psychology and rehabilitation psychology. The literatures published mainly after 2015. The average scores on Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) were 6.88. Using ICF framework, adolescent e-sport participants had main health conditions and functioning at the levels of body, activity and participation, and environment. At body level, the health conditions and functioning involved in the fields of mental function, sensory function and pain, neuromusculoskeletal and motor-related functions, mainly manifested impairments or disorders such as cognitive impairment, emotional disturbance, fatigue, sleep disturbance, depression and anxiety, obesity and musculoskeletal pain. At the individual level, main health conditions and functioning included healthy behaviors (such as sedentary behaviors, insufficient physical activity), diet and malnutrition, and other healthy behaviors. At the level of environment, main factors included support and personal relation, attitudes, services, institutional and policy performance. There were two categories of interventions: interventions at body level, such as physical intervention, psychological intervention; and intervention at activity and participation level, such as social intervention, cognitive-behaviors intervention, social media and moderate-to-high-intensity physical activity. Adolescent participants can get health benefits from interventions in the six dimensions of WHODAS2.0 of cognition, mobility, self-care, getting along with others, life activities, participation and health impact, and specifically manifested improvement in the fields of emotional and cognitive conditions, daily physical activity level, rapidly increasing from light to moderate physical activity; interruption sedentary, increasing in physical activity; enhancement of social relations, accessing to social support; and forming healthy living habits and improving the quality of life and well-being.