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Pelvic floor rehabilitation domestic and abroad in the last decade: a visualized analysis
WU Qianhao, HOU Rongjie, FU Liyuan
《Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice》    2023, 29 (6): 673-685.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2023.06.007
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Objective To perform a visualized analysis on the relevant literature about rehabilitation in pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) domestic and abroad, and summarize the current hot spots and frontiers in this field.
Methods The literature related to PFD rehabilitation from January, 2012 to June, 2022 was searched and screened from the databases of CNKI and Web of Science, and the CiteSpace software was used to analyze the trends of publications, authors, institutions and key words.
Results A total of 2 448 articles were included. Relatively few high-quality domestic researches were published. In terms of research hotspots, both domestic and international researches focused on causes, mechanisms, rehabilitation techniques and evaluation indicators of PFD, but domestic researches had not paid enough attention to evaluation indicators and prevention of PFD. The key words constantly appeared in 2022 were mechanisms of PFD due to pregnancy, treatment of postoperative complications in prostate cancer patients, the role of pelvic floor muscle training, and quality of life studies in women.
Conclusion Research related to the field of PFD rehabilitation is increasing. There is still a large gap for future development in China.

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Effect of music therapy on post-stroke cognitive impairment
LIN Yufan, WEI Tianyuan, ZHANG Xiaoying, LI Chaojinzi, HE Jingjie, DU Xiaoxia
《Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice》    2023, 29 (6): 714-719.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2023.06.013
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Objective To observe the effect of music therapy on cognitive function, motor function, and activities of daily living (ADL) of patients with post-stroke cognitive impairment.
Methods From December, 2020 to July, 2022, 48 patients with post-stroke cognitive impairment in Beijing Bo'ai Hospital were enrolled and randomly divided into control group (n = 24) and experimental group (n = 24). Both groups received conventional medication, nursing, and conventional rehabilitation, while the experimental group received music therapy additionally, for eight weeks. Before and after intervention, the cognitive function was assessed by Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA), and motor function and ADL were assessed with Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and modified Barthel Index (MBI), respectively.
Results Six cases in the control group dropped down. The increase in the scores of LOTCA and FMA was more in the experimental group than in the control group (t > 2.665, P < 0.05), however, no significant difference was found in the increase of MBI score between two groups.
Conclusion Music therapy could improve the cognitive function and motor function of patients with post-stroke cognitive impairment.

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Structure, content and psychometric properties of physical activity measurement/reporting tools applicable to children and adolecents with disabilities: a systematic review
SHI Xiaoyu, YANG Jian
《Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice》    2023, 29 (6): 621-629.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2023.06.001
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Objective To synthesize the structure, content and psychometric properties of physical activity measurement/reporting tools applied in children and adolescents with disabilities.
Methods Literature on physical activity measurement/reporting tools for children with disabilities were retrieved from PubMed, Medline, EBSCO, Web of Science and CNKI, from establishment to June, 2023. The main structure and content characteristics of the tools were analyzed using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY). The psychometric properties of the tools was assessed using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN).
Results Six tools were selected, and nine papers were finally included. Two tools were globalized standard tools, namely Global Matrix 4.0 Physical Activity Report Card for Children and Youth (Global Matrix 4.0) and the Global Matrix of Para Report Card on Physical Activity of Children and Adolescents with Disabilities (Para Report Card), measuring b455 functions of motor tolerance function, b7 neuromusculoskeletal and motor-related functions; d4 mobility, d450 walking, d470 using transportation, d820 school education, d910 community life, d920 recreation and leisure; e310 immediate family, e320 friends, e460 societal attitudes, and e575general social support services, systems and policies, etc. These tools showed a complete structure, high reliability, validity and feasibility, and could be performed in a self-reported manner or completed by the custodian or school teacher. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) might measure d4 mobility, d450 walking, d640 doing housework, d820 school education, d920 recreation and leisure. IPAQ was good in terms of internal consistency, content and construct validity, and cross-cultural validity, with different test-retest reliability and hypothesis testing results reported in different applied studies. Children and Adolescents Physical Activity and Sedentary-Questionnaire (CAPAS-Q) might measure the d4 mobility, d450 walking, d470 using transportation, d820 school education, and d920 recreation and leisure. CAPAS-Q was good in internal consistency, retest reliability, content and construct validity, but hypothesis testing results and cross-cultural validity were unknown. Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A) might measure d4 mobility, d450 walking, d470 using transportation, d820 school education, and d920 recreation and leisure. PAQ-C and PAQ-A were strong in internal consistency, retest reliability, content and construct validity, and cross-cultural validity, without hypothesis testing results.
Conclusion In terms of content, Para Report Card is the most comprehensive and extended physical activity measurement/reporting tool for children and adolescents with disabilities. In terms of the psychometric properties of the instruments, the multidimensional, structured physical activity measures show high internal consistency, retest reliability, and content and construct validity, with varying retest reliability and correlational validity with objective measures across studies.

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Effects of different intensity of wearable lower limb rehabilitation robot-assisted training on lower limb function after stroke
ZHAO Yaxian, TANG Zhiqing, SUN Xinting, WANG Rongrong, LIU Tianhao, ZHANG Hao
《Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice》    2023, 29 (5): 497-503.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2023.05.001
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Objective To explore the effects of different intensity of wearable lower limb rehabilitation robot-assisted training on walking function, lower limb motor function, balance function and functional independence of stroke patients.

Methods From November, 2021 to December, 2022, 60 stroke patients hospitalized in Beijing Bo'ai Hospital were randomly divided into control group (n = 20), observation group 1 (n = 20) and observation group 2 (n = 20). All the groups received routine rehabilitation, while the control group received routine walking training 30 minutes a day, the observation group 1 received wearable lower limb rehabilitation robot-assisted training 30 minutes a day, and the observation group 2 received wearable lower limb rehabilitation robot-assisted training 60 minutes a day, for four weeks. They were assessed with Functional Ambulation Category scale (FAC), Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Lower Extremities (FMA-LE), Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI) before and after treatment.

Results One case in the observation group 1 and three cases in the observation group 2 dropped down. The FAC, FMA-LE, BBS and RMI scores improved in all the three groups after treatment (|Z| > 3.448, |t| > 8.102, P < 0.001), and there was no significant difference in all the indexes among the three groups (|H| < 4.643, F = 1.454, P > 0.05); however, the improvement of BBS score was more in the observation group 1 than in the control group (P < 0.05), and the improvement of all the indexes was more in the observation group 2 than in the control group (P < 0.05).

Conclusion The wearable lower limb rehabilitation robot-assisted training may promote the recovery of walking function, lower limb motor function, balance function and functional independence of stroke patients, and high-intensity training seems to be more effective.

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Effect of motor imagery on knee function after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty
LI Ziyi, SONG Weiqun, DU Jubao, CAO Guanglei, ZHANG Yanming, LI Ran
《Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice》    2023, 29 (7): 745-749.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2023.07.001
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Objective To explore the effect of motor imagery (MI) on knee function after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA).

Methods From January to September, 2022, 32 patients underwent UKA for the first time in Xuanwu Hospital were randomly divided into control group (n = 16) and experimental group (n = 16). All the patients accepted routine rehabilitation, and the experimental group accepted MI in addition, until four weeks after discharge. They were assessed with Oxford Knee Score (OKS), Visual Analogue Scale for pain (VAS), range of motion (ROM) of knee, and Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT) before and after treatment.

Results All the indexes improved after treatment (|t| > 2.517, P < 0.05), except ROM in the control group; and they improved more in the experimental group than in the control group (F > 7.999, P < 0.01), except the VAS score.

Conclusion MI can further improve the knee function after UKA, but do less for pain.

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Effect of acupuncture on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
WANG Yan, JIN Longtao
《Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice》    2023, 29 (5): 615-620.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2023.05.019
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Objective To observe the effect of acupuncture on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Methods From August to December, 2022, 54 children with ADHD from the outpatient clinic of the Fourth People's Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University were randomly divided into control group (n = 27) and observation group (n = 27). All the patients accepted electroencephalogram (EEG) neurofeedback training, while the observation group accepted acupuncture in addition, for twelve weeks. They were assessed with Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test (IVA-CPT), Conners Parent Symptom Questionnaire (PSQ), and EEG before and after treatment.

Results The comprehensive control quotient, comprehensive attention quotient and hyperactivity quotient of IVA-CPT increased in the observation group after treatment (t > 3.889, P < 0.001), and they were more in the observation group than in the control group (t > 2.040, P < 0.05); while all the factors of PSQ reduced in the observation group (t > 6.630, P < 0.001), and they were less in the observation group than in the control group (t > 3.871, P < 0.001); the mean frequency of β and sensorimotor rhythms increased in the observation group (t > 12.432, P < 0.001), and they were more in the observation group than in the control group (t > 7.561, P < 0.001); the mean frequency of θ reduced in the observation group (t = 9.966, P < 0.001), and it was less in the observation group than in the control group (t = 7.257, P < 0.001).

Conclusion Combination of acupuncture is more effective on EEG in children with ADHD to improve attention, control and core symptoms.

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Effect of repetitive facilitative exercise on hand function of stroke patients with hemiplegic during recovery period
GU Bin, ZHANG Jinqin, XIA Yuanhao, HU Jingran, NAOKI Morohashi, HUANG Fubiao
《Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice》    2023, 29 (6): 697-702.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2023.06.010
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Objective To observe the effect of repetitive facilitative exercise (RFE) on the hand function of stroke patients with hemiplegia during recovery period.
Methods From January to December, 2022, 80 stroke patients with hemiplegia following hand dysfunction during recovery period in Beijing Bo'ai Hospital were randomly divided into control group (n = 40) and experimental group (n = 40). Both groups received routine rehabilitation, the control group added functional occupational therapy, and the experimental group added RFE, for four weeks. They were assessed with Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity (FMA-UE), Simple Test for Evaluating Hand Function (STEF) and modified Barthel Index (MBI) before and after treatment.
Results One case dropped down in the experimental group. After treatment, all the scores increased in both groups (|t| > 12.698, P < 0.001), and were better in the experimental group than in the control group (|t| > 2.302, P < 0.05).
Conclusion RFE could promote the recovery of hand function and activities of daily living in patients with hemiplegia during stroke recovery period.

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Relationship between symmetry of lower limb function and gait symmetry in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury
WANG Yiji, ZHOU Hongjun, HE Zejia, LIU Genlin, ZHENG Ying, HAO Chunxia, WEI Bo, KANG Haiqiong, ZHANG Ying, LU Xiaolei, YUAN Yuan, MENG Qianru
《Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice》    2023, 29 (6): 639-645.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2023.06.003
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Objective To observe the characteristics of gait symmetry and its influencing factors in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (ISCI).
Methods From May, 2018 to November, 2021, 34 patients with ISCI in Beijing Bo'ai Hospital were divided into symmetrical injury of lower limb (SI) group and asymmetrical injury of lower limb (ASI) group according to the lower extremities motor score (LEMS). Three dimensional motion acquisition system and plantar pressure acquisition system were used for gait test. The symmetry indexes of step length, stance time and swing time were caculated.
Results The symmetry indexes of step length, stance time and swing time were significant lower in SI group than in ASI group (|t| > 2.619, P < 0.01). Stance time and swing time significantly correlated to the difference of bilateral LEMS in ASI group (r > 0.468, P < 0.01). Discriminant analysis showed that gait parameter equations were different for patients with different symmetry of lower limb injuries.
Conclusion The symmetry of lower limb motor function impacts gait symmetry for patients with ISCI, especially the difference value of bilateral total LEMS. Gait parameters can be used to determine the symmetry of lower limb injury in patients with ISCI.

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Effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation combined with neuromuscular electrical stimulation on chronic ankle instability
REN Yi, WANG Rui, ZHANG Yaohua
《Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice》    2023, 29 (7): 750-755.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2023.07.002
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Objective To observe the effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation combined with neuromuscular electrical stimulation on chronic ankle instability (CAI).

Methods From April, 2016 to December, 2021, 48 patients with CAI were randomly divided into control group (n = 24) and observation group (n = 24). Both groups accepted routine rehabilitation, and the observation group accepted proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation combined with neuromuscular electrical stimulation additionally, for eight weeks. They were assessed with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), peak torque to body weight of ankle dorsiflexors and plantarflexors (AD/W, AP/W), Y Balance Test (YBT) and Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI) before and after treatment.

Results After treatment, VAS score, AD/W, AP/W, YBT and FADI improved in the observation group (|t| > 2.208, P < 0.05), while VAS score and AP/W improved in the control group (|t| > 2.156, P < 0.05); and all the VAS score, AD/W, AP/W, YBT and FADI were better in the observation group than in the control group (|t| > 2.067, P < 0.05).

Conclusion Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation combined with neuromuscular electrical stimulation can effectively relieve the pain of patients with CAI, and increase the muscle strength around the ankle, to improve the stability and balance.

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Effect of short-foot exercise on adult flatfoot: a systematic review
YU Zhongqi, WANG Chao, HE Gang, ZHANG Liang, WANG Ruiyan
《Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice》    2023, 29 (5): 551-557.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2023.05.009
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Objective To systematically review the effects of short-foot exercise on adult flatfoot.

Methods Articles related to short-foot exercise for flatfoot were searched from PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, Embase, Scopus, CNKI, Wanfang Data and CBM, from January, 2010 to December, 2022. The methodological quality was evaluated with the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale, and the relevant data were extracted.

Results Ten randomized controlled trials were included, involved 335 individuals. The mean score of the PEDro scale was 7.1. Short-foot exercise improved the navicular drop, posture index score, balance and cross-sectional area of abductor hallucis muscle for patients with flatfoot, but plantar pressure.

Conclusion Short-foot exercise can improve the foot structure, balance and adductor hallucis muscle in adult flatfoot, but plantar pressure.

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Effect of anodal or cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation on upper limb function of stroke patients
CAI Qian, XU Liang, YANG Xi, LIU Jin, MA Ming
《Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice》    2023, 29 (5): 521-526.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2023.05.005
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Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of anodal or cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS and ctDCS) on upper limb function of stroke patients with moderate to severe upper extremity impairment.

Methods From January to September, 2022, 69 patients in Zhongda Hospital Southeast University were randomly divided into control group (n = 23), atDCS group (n = 23) and ctDCS group (n = 23). All the groups received conventional rehabilitation. Moreover, atDCS group received atDCS over the M1 area of the affected hemisphere, ctDCS group received ctDCS over the M1 area of the unaffected hemisphere, and the control group received placebo stimulation. Before and four weeks after treatment, they were assessed with Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremities (FMA-UE), Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) and modified Barthel index (MBI).

Results Before treatment, there was no significant difference in the scores of FMA-UE, WMFT and MBI among groups (F < 1.165, P > 0.05). After treatment, all the scores improved significantly in all the groups (|t| > 6.412, P < 0.001), and were higher in the atDCS group and ctDCS group than in the control group (P < 0.05), however, no significant difference was found between the atDCS group and ctDCS group (P > 0.05).

Conclusion Both atDCS and ctDCS could improve the upper limb motor function and activities of daily living of stroke patients with moderate to severe upper extremity impairment.

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Effect of neurofeedback training on cognitive function in the elderly: a systematic review
JIANG Changhao, HUANG Chen, GAO Xiaoyan, DAI Yuanfu, ZHAO Guoming
《Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice》    2023, 29 (8): 903-909.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2023.08.006
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Objective To systematically review the effect of neurofeedback training on cognitive function in the elderly within the framework of the International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision (ICD-11), and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).
Methods A PICO framework was constructed. Randomized controlled trials on neurofeedback training for cognitive function in the elderly from PubMed, Web of Science, ProQuest, and CNKI up to July, 2023 were systematically reviewed. Methodological quality assessment of the included literature was performed using Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale.
Results A total of 15 researches were included, from ten countries, involving 520 participants, who were healthy elderly individuals or those with mild cognitive impairment. Various neurofeedback waveforms were utilized, such as alpha, beta, theta, beta/alpha, and sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) waves. Intervention duration ranged from 20 to 90 minutes, with intervention frequencies spanning from a long-term intervention of 30 sessions over 12 weeks to a high-frequency short-term intervention of eight sessions over one week. The primary health outcomes focused on cognitive function, including memory, attention, inhibitory control and executive function.
Conclusion Neurofeedback training can improve the cognitive function of the eldery, and alleviate cognitive aging.

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Sleep disturbance and association with social behavior in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder
ZHU Kaixuan, WANG Yuxiang, WANG Xianna, ZHANG Yan, WANG Yunlei, ZHANG Haojie, BAI Chen, LI Xingzhu, ZHANG Tong
《Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice》    2023, 29 (5): 608-614.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2023.05.018
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Objective To explore sleep disturbance in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and analyze the relationship between sleep disturbance and social behavior.

Methods From December, 2020 to December, 2022, 221 preschool children with ASD from Beijing Bo'ai Hospital and other two institutes, and 246 healthy preschool children socially recruited were investigated with Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ). A total of 47 ASD children and 47 healthy children were selected from them to wear a sleep monitoring watch for seven days, while the ASD children were evaluated with Gesell Development Diagnosis Scale (GDDS), Psychoeducational Profile-Third Edition (PEP-3), Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2 (ADOS), Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS).

Results All the factor-scores were more in the ASD children than in the healthy children (t > 2.491, P < 0.05), except that of daytime sleepiness. The prevalence of sleep disturbance (CSHQ ≥ 41) was 89.6% in ASD children, which was more than that of the healthy children (76.8%) (χ2 = 13.360, P < 0.001). The sleep problems in ASD children included bedtime resistance, sleep anxiety, sleep duration, sleep onset delay, parasomnias and sleep disordered breathing. ASD children were shorter in total bedtime, shorter in total sleep time, longer in sleep latency, longer in awake time and lower in sleep efficiency (|t| > 2.001, P < 0.05), compared with those of healthy children. For ASD children, the total bedtime negatively correlated with GDDS-language, PEP-3-expressive language, PEP-3-communication and PEP-3-maladaptive behaviors (r < -0.300, P < 0.05); the sleep efficiency negatively correlated with total score of CARS (r = -0.365, P < 0.05); sleep latency correlated with GDDS-social, PEP-3-cognitive, PEP-3-expressive language, PEP-3-receptive language, PEP-3-visual-motor imitation, PEP-3-characteristic verbal behaviors, PEP-3-communication, original score of ADOS, ADOS-social affect, and total score of CARS (|r| > 2.90, P < 0.05); and total awake time positively correlated with total score of CARS (r = 0.406, P < 0.05).

Conclusion Sleep disturbance is prevalent and various in preschool ASD children, and influence their social behaviors.

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Effect of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation combined with robot-assisted therapy on upper limb function of stroke patients
ZHENG Li, BAO Zhicheng, ZHANG Qi, REN Xuyan, SU Min
《Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice》    2023, 29 (6): 691-696.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2023.06.009
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Objective To investigate the effect of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) combined with robot-assisted therapy on upper limb function of subacute stroke patients.
Methods From March, 2022 to March, 2023, 60 subacute stroke patients from Dushu Lake Hospital and the First People's Hospital of Kunshan were randomly divided into control group (n = 20), robot group (n = 20) and combined group (n = 20). All the groups received conventional treatments including medication, physical therapy and occupational therapy; the robot group received sham taVNS combined with hand robot-assisted therapy; while the combined group received taVNS combined with hand robot-assisted therapy, for four weeks. They were assessed with Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremities (FMA-UE) and hand part, the root mean square (RMS) electromyography of the extensor carpi radialis and extensor digitorum muscles during contraction, and the latency and amplitude of transcranial magnetic stimulation motor-evoked potential (TMS-MEP) before and after treatment.
Results After treatment, the scores of FMA-UE and hand part, RMS of the extensor carpi radialis and extensor digitorum muscles, and latency and amplitude of TMS-MEP improved in all the groups (t > 2.099, P < 0.05); and they were the best in all indicators in the combined group (F > 9.106, P < 0.001).
Conclusion taVNS combined with robot-assisted therapy can promote central nervous system remodeling and further improve upper limb function in stroke patients.

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Effect of acute physical activity on cognitive function in children: a systematic review
JIANG Changhao, GAO Xiaoyan
《Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice》    2023, 29 (6): 667-672.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2023.06.006
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Objective To evaluate the effects of physical activity on children's cognitive function based on International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).
Methods The PICO framework was constructed. Trials on the effects of physical activity on children's cognition were searched in Web of Science, PubMed, ProQuest and CNKI from inception to June 1st, 2023. The included literature was evaluated for methodological quality using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale.
Results Ten papers from six countries with a total of 550 subjects were involved, including both healthy children and children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders. Physical activity involved running, cycling, high jumping, jumping rope and soccer, and the type of physical activity was acute aerobic exercise, ranging from twelve to 30 minutes, mostly at moderate intensity. Health outcomes were focused on cognitive aspects.
Conclusion A theoretical framework for the benefits of physical activity on children's cognitive function has been constructed based on ICF. Acute physical activity shortens reaction time, improves various subcomponents of executive function, increases selective attention, and consolidates long-term memory.

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Structure, contents and psychometric properties of measurement of motor function and motor ability applicable to children and adolescents with disabilities: a systematic review
LIU Hui, YIN Hang, JIA Shaohui, QIU Fubing
《Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice》    2023, 29 (6): 630-638.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2023.06.002
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Objective To evaluate the main structural and content features of four instruments for motor function and motor ability assessment and their psychometric properties for children and adolescents with disabilities, based on International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY).
Methods PubMed, Medline and Web of Science databases were searched for literature on motor function and motor ability assessment for children and adolescents with disabilities published from establishment to May, 2023. The main structural and content characteristics of the tools were analyzed using ICF-CY, and the quality of measurement tools was assessed using COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN).
Results Nine papers were eventually included, and four assessment tools were identified, including Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88), Peabody Developmental Motor Scales second edition (PDMS-2), Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency second edition (BOT-2), and Movement Assessment Battery for Children second edition (MABC-2). The GMFM-88 consisted of 88 items in five dimensions: zone A (lying and rolling), zone B (sitting), zone C (crawling and kneeling), zone D (standing), and zone E (walking and running and jumping); it involved joint movement function (b710), random movement control function (b760), etc., in body function; and the change of basic body posture to maintain a body posture (d410) and maintain a body posture (d415) in activity and participation, with good to excellent levels of internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, content validity, and structural validity. The PDMS-2 consisted of six subtests, including reflexes, posture, movement, physical manipulation, grasping and visuomotor integration, with a total of 249 items; it involved memory function (b144) and joint mobility function (b710) in body function; as well as looking (d110) and imitation (d130) in activity and participation; with good psychometric properties in terms of internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, content validity, structural validity, and hypothesis testing and cross-cultural feasibility. There are two versions of BOT-2: long form and short form. The long form consisted of eight subtests with 53 items, involving joint mobility function (b710) and joint stability function (b715) in body function; as well as imitation (d130) and learned calculation (d150) in activity and participation; it achieved excellent levels of psychometric properties in terms of internal consistency reliability, content validity, and structural validity, and good level in reliability and test-retest reliability. MABC-2 consisted of two parts: an activity ability test and a checklist with 30 items; it involved joint mobility function (b710), joint stability function (b715), etc., in body function; as well as fine-hand use (d440), hand and arm use (d445) in activity and participation; with good psychometric properties such as reliability, content validity, and structural validity.
Conclusion This systematic review analyzed the main structural and content characteristics of four types of measurement tools for assessing motor function and motor ability in children and adolescents with disabilities based on the ICF-CY, and evaluated the quality of psychometric properties (internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, content validity, structural validity, and cross-cultural consistency, etc.) of the four types of measurement tools using the COSMIN criteria. For the structure and content, PDMS-2 appears the broadest content, and measures fine hand movements, dynamic and static balance, along with the BOT-2 and MABC-2. GMFM-88 focuses more on gross motor functions such as postural control. Four instruments show high internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, content validity and structural validity, while the BOT-2 and PDMS-2 show better reliability. To ensure the reliability and validity of the measures, rehabilitation workers and educators need to receive standardized training and qualification before using the standardized instruments for motor function and motor ability for children with disabilities. With norm-referenced measures, the results need to be converted to standard scores.

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Application of constraint-induced movement therapy in the field of rehabilitation: a visualized analysis
MA Tiantian, YU Zifu, QIN Fang, LENG Xiaoxuan, LIU Xihua
《Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice》    2023, 29 (7): 822-832.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2023.07.012
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Objective To understand the current research status, research hotspots and development trends of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in the field of rehabilitation.

Methods The relevant articles of CIMT in rehabilitation from January, 2000 to October, 2022 in CNKI and Web of Science were retrieved. The authors, institutions, countries, keywords and burst words were extracted with CiteSpace 6.1.R3 to draw knowledge mapping.

Results A total of 1 165 articles were included, 359 articles in Chinese and 806 in English. The trend of annual publications was generally consistent, and after a period of rapid growth, the current annual publications showed a fluctuating trend. There was more cooperation among the institutions in English articles, with geographical limitation. The institutions in Chinese articles had the problem of insufficient cooperation. The researches mainly focused on the application of CIMT in different diseases, the improvement of motor function by CIMT, the application of CIMT in combination with other therapies, and the study of the related mechanisms of CIMT. In recent years, Chinese burst keywords included modified constraint-induced movement therapy, stroke hemiparesis, clinical efficacy and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; English burst keywords included transcranial direct current stimulation, non-invasive brain stimulation, and unilateral cerebral palsy.

Conclusion Research on CIMT in the field of rehabilitation is in a period of steady development, and CIMT combined with non-invasive brain stimulation is likely to be a hotspot in future research.

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Application of functional near-infrared spectroscopy in stroke: a visualized analysis
WANG Haifang, XU Minjie, LI Ying, LEI Xiaojing, CHANG Jingling
《Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice》    2023, 29 (12): 1405-1419.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2023.12.005
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Objective To explore the current status and frontier hotspots of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in the field of stroke.

Methods Relevant literature on stroke and fNIRS from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) database was searched from its inception to July, 2023. VOSviewer, CiteSpace and Scimago were utilized for analysis of publication output, countries (regions) and institutions, international collaboration, co-cited references, co-occurring keywords and burst keywords.

Results A total of 379 articles were included. The research activity in this field showed an overall upward trend with slight fluctuations in the early stage. Among the top five institutions by publication output, four were from China. Co-occurrence analysis revealed that Beihang University and Boston Children's Hospital were central in collaboration networks. This study involved 1 787 authors, with 120 core authors, in which the top five most cited authors were Li Zengyong, Li Wenhao, Huo Congcong, Dou Zulin and Song Ying. The publications in this field were primarily concentrated in disciplines such as neurology, psychiatry, ophthalmology and clinical medicine. Overlay visualization of journal co-citation networks demonstrated associations between medical, clinical, and neurology disciplines with psychology, education, and sociology. Co-occurrence and clustering analysis of keywords indicated research emphasis on stroke rehabilitation, integration of multiple technical modalities, and exploration of innovative training strategies and brain activation connectivity. The research evolution of fNIRS in the stroke domain revealed initial use of photodiode devices for cerebral ischemia reperfusion monitoring. Subsequent studies refined cortical activation through improved laser sources, avalanche photodiodes, single-task experimental designs and transcranial direct current stimulation. Later, research extended to whole-brain detection, multimodal stimulation and the combination of virtual reality technology with audiovisual stimulation, resulting in significantly enhanced brain activation. The application of brain-computer interface technology further facilitated direct restoration of motor function.

Conclusion Researches in the field of stroke using fNIRS technology overall demonstrat a continuous upward trend. The researches focuse on post-stroke rehabilitation, integrating multimodal fusion, brain-computer interfaces, virtual reality, and sensory stimulation for real-time monitoring and personalized neurorehabilitation training strategies. It emphasizes interdisciplinary collaboration, expanding innovative research and the application of new technologies.

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Correlation between intrinsic capacity and activities of daily living for old adults in China: based on China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study
LIU Mengya, ZHANG Li, ZHANG Meng, SONG Nannan, ZHOU Jinglei
《Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice》    2023, 29 (10): 1140-1146.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2023.10.004
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Objective To explore the weights and comprehensive indices of each field of intrinsic capacity of old adults, and the correlation between intrinsic capacity and activities of daily living (ADL).
Methods The data of 5 506 cases aged more than 60 years in the 2015 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) were used to collect the assessment of intrinsic capacity and the measurement of ADL. The assessment of intrinsic capacity included cognition, motor, vitality, sensory and psychology; while the ADL scale included six indicators, namely dressing, bathing, eating, getting in or out of bed, going to the toilet, and controlling urine and feces.
Results A total of 1 343 cases were limited in ADL (24.4%). Women, lower education level, older age, the widowed, greater number of chronic diseases, and poorer self-rated health were the factors more likely to be limited in ADL. Principal component analysis showed that the largest weight value was in psychological domain, followed by the cognitive domain, and the lowest weight value was in the motor domain. After controlling for the effects of age, gender, living environment, economic income, education level, marriage, smoking and drinking, number of chronic diseases, and self-rated health, the Logistic regression analysis showed that low exercise capacity (OR = 0.581, 95%CI 0.501 to 0.674), depression (OR = 0.426, 95%CI 0.368 to 0.493), audile and visual impairment (OR = 0.813, 95%CI 0.699 to 0.947; OR = 0.684, 95%CI 0.578 to 0.809), overweight (OR = 1.203, 95%CI 1.014 to 1.428) and obesity (OR = 1.584, 95%CI 1.312 to 1.912) were independent risk factors for ADL limitation in older adults.
Conclusion Decrease of intrinsic capacity is a predictor for ADL limitation in older adults.

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Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation combined with contralateral control functional electrical stimulation on upper limb function of stroke patients
CHEN Tiantian, XU Dongping, SUN Fengbao, LAI Junmei, ZENG Duchun
《Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice》    2023, 29 (5): 527-532.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2023.05.006
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Objective To investigate the effect of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS) combined with contralaterally controlled functional electrical stimulation (CCFES) on upper limb motor function of stroke patients.

Methods From January to December, 2022, 60 stroke patients from Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital were randomly divided into atDCS group (n = 20), CCFES group (n = 20) and combined group (n = 20). All the groups accepted routine rehabilitation, while atDCS group accepted atDCS on the primary motor (M1) area of the damaged hemisphere, CCFES group accepted CCFES on the triceps brachii and extensors carpi muscles, and the combined group accepted atDCS on the M1 area of damaged hemisphere and CCFES on triceps brachii and extensors carpi muscles, for six weeks. They were assessed with Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremities (FMA-UE), Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), and the electromyography root mean square (RMS) ratio of bilateral triceps brachii muscles and extensor carpi muscles, before and after treatment.

Results The FMA-UE score, WMFT score, and the RMS ratio of the triceps brachii muscles and extensor carpi muscles improved in all the groups after treatment (|t| > 5.007, P< 0.001), and improved the most in the combined group (F> 14.492, P < 0.001).

Conclusion atDCS combined with CCFES can effectively improve upper limb motor function of stroke patients.

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