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Advance in Early Rehabilitation after Stroke(review)
XIE Cai-zhong;XU Ge-lin;LIU Xin-feng
   2009, 15 (10): 908-912.  
Abstract1029)      PDF(pc) (129KB)(31873)       Save
This article reviewed the literatures on brain plastic reorganization theory, time of treatment, Methods and techniques of rehabilitation treatment, which inclued Bobath, Brunnstrom, Rood, PNF, MRP, biofeedback electrical stimulation therapy, constraint induced movement therapy, nerve muscle electrical stimulation therapy, acupuncture, body weight support treadmill training, motor imagery therapy, robot assisted therapy, and comprehensive rehabilitation therapy. It can provide theory basis and technique for early rehabilitation treatment after stroke.
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International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury
   2011, 17 (10): 963-972.  
Abstract2182)      PDF(pc) (1764KB)(3607)       Save
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   2012, 18 (4): 301-318.  
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Relationship of Neurovascular Units and Neurodegenerative Diseases (review)
LI Jia-shuai, ZHU Lu-wen, YE Tao, LI Hong-yu, LIANG Bi-ying, TANG Qiang
   2018, 24 (3): 287-289.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2018.03.007
Abstract980)      PDF(pc) (1107KB)(2904)       Save
The concept of neurovascular units studies the interaction between neural cells and blood vessels, regards the blood-brain barrier as the core, and relates with the neurodegenerative diseases. This paper reviewed the relationship between neurovascular units and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, etc.
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Application of Brain-computer Interface in Rehabilitation of Hand Function after Stroke (review)
CHEN Shu-geng, JIA Jie
   2017, 23 (1): 23-26.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2017.01.006
Abstract1595)      PDF(pc) (947KB)(2398)       Save
Based on some physiological events and two kinds of function, assistive and rehabilitative, brain-computer interface gives real-time, multi-sensor feedbacks to assist hand function, modulating patients' brain signals by the closed loop proprioceptive feedback. It can improve cerebral plasticity and remodeling, that comes a novel approach to hand rehabilitaion after stroke.
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Advance of Motor Function Measurements Applied in Neuromuscular Diseases (review)
CHEN Tu-rong, HUANG Mei-huan, CAO Jian-guo
   2018, 24 (9): 1043-1047.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2018.09.010
Abstract822)      PDF(pc) (1108KB)(2211)       Save
Neuromuscular disease (NMD) is a group of hereditary or acquired myopathy typically manifested as motor dysfunction. There is still no consensus in the standardized tools for evaluation of motor function. Among the tools widely used, Motor Function Measure can be used in all kinds of NMD, while North Star Ambulatory Assessment and Performance of the Upper Limb can be for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale, the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Infant Test of Neuromuscular Disorders and Upper Limb Module for spinal muscular atrophy.
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   2003, 9 (02): 71-73.  
Abstract1131)      PDF(pc) (95KB)(2201)       Save
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Advance in Clinical Evaluation Methods of Facial Paralysis (review)
DENG Yong-an, GUO Jia-kui, YU Jin-dong, WANG Dong-ping, SUN Xi-gang, LIN Cui-ru
   2017, 23 (12): 1407-1410.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2017.12.008
Abstract1657)      PDF(pc) (1048KB)(2149)       Save
The clinical evaluation methods of facial paralysis can be divided into functional evaluation scales, neuro-electrophysiological tests and computer evaluation systems. The commonly used function evaluation scales include House-Brackmann Grading Scale (HBGS), Burres-Fisch Facial Nerve Scoring System, Nottingham System, Sunnybrook facial grading System (SFGS), Degree of Facial Nerve Paralysis Hierarchical Scale, Facial Disability Index (FDI) and Facial Clinimetric Evaluation (FaCE) Scale, etc. Neuro-electrophysiological tests mainly consist of facial electromyography (EMG), electroneurography (ENoG), blink reflex (BR), and neural excitatory test (NET), etc. The computer evaluation system based on the sensor is mainly divided into the computer evaluation system based on infrared thermal image technology and the computer evaluation system based on biomedicine image recognition. This article briefly summarized the existing methods of facial paralysis evaluation in terms of sensitivity, stability, accuracy, ease of operation and economics.
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Formulation of Exercise Prescription in Physiotherapy (review)
SHEN Li;CHANG Dong-mei;LI Yan-long
   2009, 15 (11): 1012-1014.  
Abstract999)      PDF(pc) (104KB)(2102)       Save
The exercise prescription in the process of physiotherapy, including exercise intensity, exercise duration, frequency and type of movement, provide a consistent basis for rehabilitation to ensure the safety and efficacy of the treatment.
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Research Progress of Low Back Pain Disability Assessment Scale (review)
WANG Xue-qiang, ZHENG Yi-li, HU Hao-yu, ZHANG Juan, ZHENG Jie-jiao, CHEN Pei-jie
   2017, 23 (6): 672-676.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2017.06.011
Abstract2723)      PDF(pc) (1108KB)(1988)       Save
Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common types of disability affecting individuals in Western countries, and the assessment of LBP-related disabilities represents a significant challenge. The disability assessment scales in LBP are commonly used in clinical diagnosis and treatment as well as evaluation system for clinical research, such as Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), and Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (QBPDS). This article focused on the clinical applications, reliability and validity, strength and limitations of these scales, to help the clinical application and scientific research for the LBP disability scale.
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   2013, 19 (4): 301-307.  
Abstract1743)      PDF(pc) (1242KB)(1887)       Save
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   2018, 24 (7): 745-752.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2018.00.002
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Characteristics of Gesell Developmental Schedules in Children with Movement Disorders
   2012, 18 (11): 1060-1061.  
Abstract1629)      PDF(pc) (1034KB)(1794)       Save
Objective To investigate the incidence and structure of mental disability in children with movement disorders. Methods 157 children with movement disorders (103 with cerebral palsy and 54 with mental retardation) were assessed with Gesell developmental schedules,and mental disability was identified as development quotient (DQ)<75. Results The incidence of intelligence disability was 92.2% in children with cerebral palsy, including 91.2% in spastic type, and 100% in dyskinetic, mixed or dystonic type. The development of gross motor was retarded in children with spastic cerebral palsy, and gross and fine motor in children with dyskinetic cerebral palsy, compared with those with mental retardation. Conclusion It is important to focus the mental development in children with movement disorders, especially the dyskinetic cerebral palsy. Gesell developmental schedules should be used carefully to assess the mental development in children with movement disorder.
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Advance in Physical Therapy for Post-stroke Limb Spasticity (review)
SUN Tong, JIA Zi-shan, GE Han-xiao, YU Zeng-zhi
   2019, 25 (5): 497-505.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2019.05.001
Abstract907)      PDF(pc) (1276KB)(1652)       Save
This paper reviewed the relevant literatures on physical therapy for post-stroke limb spasticity from Chinese Hospital Knowledge Database (CHKD) and PubMed since 2011, and summarized the pathology, examination, physiotherapy strategies and various physiotherapy methods. The physical therapy mainly included physical factor therapy, kinesiotherapy and manipulation therapy. It is necessary to optimize the selection of physical therapy strategies in clinical practice to improve efficiency of rehabilitation.
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Comparation of Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test -II and III on Evaluating Memory Function in Patients with Mild Brain Injury
ZHANG Yi, WANG Ya, ZHANG Yu, WU Ye-huan, YAO Qiu-jin, YAN Cheng
   2017, 23 (12): 1415-1419.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2017.12.010
Abstract1568)      PDF(pc) (1054KB)(1594)       Save
Objective To choose a better version of Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT) to assess memory function of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods From April, 2015 to Febrary, 2017, 40 mild TBI patients and 40 healthy people were recruited as TBI group and control group respectively. Both groups completed the Chinese version of RBMT-II first, and 24 hours to 48 hours later, completed the Chinese version of RBMT-III. The raw score of each test and the number of perfect scores and floor performance were scored and compared. Results Compared with the control group, TBI group got lower scores in six subtests of RBMT-II (F>2.131, P<0.05) and twelve subtests of RBMT-III (F>2.035, P<0.05). Administration of the RBMT-III resulted in less participants performing at or near individual subtest's ceiling than RBMT-II, mainly in the picture recognition, face recognition, the line instant memories, the line delay memories, letters delayed recall and orientation date (Z>2.117, P<0.05). Also administration of the RBMT-III resulted in less floor performance than those of RBMT-II, mainly in remembering the name and the appointment (Z>2.138, P<0.05). Conclusion RBMT-III has substantial improvement over the original RBMT-II, as it reduces the problem of ceiling and floor performance and the number of misclassifications.
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Characteristics of Genus-level Gut Microbiome in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury
WANG Jun-yu,PANG Ri-zhao,WANG Wen-chun,WANG Mei-yu,XIANG Wu,ZHAO Xiao-hua,ZHANG An-ren
Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice    2020, 26 (4): 393-399.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2020.00.003
Abstract1357)   HTML32)    PDF(pc) (1454KB)(1563)       Save

Objective To investigate the changes of genus-level gut microbiome in patients with spinal cord injury and its significance in clinical rehabilitation.Methods Fecal samples were collected from 23 patients with spinal cord injury (patients group) and 21 healthy volunteers (control group). Gut microbiome was detected by 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing. Bioinformatics methods such as species composition analysis and Random Forest were used to analyze the distribution and difference of genus-level gut microbiome between two groups. Results Compared with the control group, the increased important marker genera in the patients group were as follows: UBA1819, Ruminiclostridium 9, Ruminococcaceae NK4A214 group, Ruminococcus 2, Ruminococceae UCG-005, Ruminiclostridium 5, Flavonifractor belonging to Ruminococceae; Aglistes, dgA-11 gut group, Rikenaceae RC9 gut group belonging to Rikenellaceae; [Eubacterium] oxidoreducens group belonging to Lachnospiraceae; Intestinibacter belonging to Peptostreptococcaceae; Escherichia-Shigella belonging to Enterobacteriaceae; Tannerellaceae belonging to Parabacteroides (|U| > 1.962, P< 0.05). The decreased marker genera in the patients group was Fusobacterium of Fusobacteriaceae (|U| = -2.284, P< 0.05).Conclusion There are significant differences of gut microbiome in spinal cord injury patients. The relative abundance of Ruminococcaceae relating to depression, Ruminococcus relating to central nervous system diseases, and enteropathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia-Shigella and Erysipelothrix increase; and the relative abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria and anti-inflammatory bacteria benefitting to the intestine decrease; which may play a role in clinic.

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Advance in Intestinal Flora Affecting Central Nervous System Diseases (review)
WU Xiao-jun, ZHU Lu-wen, YE Tao, LI Hong-yu, CHEN Yu-hong, TANG Qiang
   2018, 24 (5): 539-543.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2018.05.010
Abstract1130)      PDF(pc) (1064KB)(1560)       Save
Intestinal flora plays an important role in the process of human health and disease conversion. It not only participates in a number of physiological processes in the host, but also affects the central nervous system (CNS) -related diseases, which may involve in neurotransmitter, immune, endocrine, metabolites, etc. Intestinal dysbacteriosis plays a role in the development of CNS diseases, such as ischemic brain injury, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, hepatic encephalopathy, and mental disorders, etc. Fecal microbes transplantation, exercise training, acupuncture and Tuina therapy can improve the intestinal flora balance, which may be potential for the treatment and prevention of some nervous system diseases.
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Application of Breathing Trainer in Pulmonary Rehabilitation of Stable Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (review)
TIAN Jia-wei, CAI Li-ting, HOU Xin-heng
   2018, 24 (4): 416-421.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2018.04.008
Abstract921)      PDF(pc) (1943KB)(1533)       Save
At present, the mechanism of breathing trainer is not very clear, but it mainly bases on the neuromuscular plasticity of respiratory muscle. The breathing trainers appeared on the market mainly included resistance load or threshold load breathing trainers, abdominal breathing trainers, multifunctional breathing trainers, and new breathing trainers. However, the efficacy of breathing trainer on the stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remains uncertain, and needs further researches.
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Progression of Rehabilitation for Dysphagia after Stroke (review)
XIAO Wei-hong, WU Bi-yu
   2017, 23 (7): 783-787.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2017.07.009
Abstract1299)      PDF(pc) (1033KB)(1505)       Save
Dysphagia increases the risks of mortality and palindromia post stroke, and influences the rehabilitation and quality of life. All the patients with stroke need a set of clinical screening, and those positive would accept comprehensive evaluation, both bedside and laboratory. Many approaches have been used for dysphagic rehabilitation, but it is not clear what the best is.
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Effect of External Phrenic Nerve Electrical Stimulation on Respiratory Function for Convalescent Stroke Patients
ZOU Sheng-guo, WU Jian-xian, ZHANG Jin-niu
   2019, 25 (5): 513-517.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2019.05.003
Abstract674)      PDF(pc) (1281KB)(1423)       Save
Objective To observe the effect of external phrenic nerve electrical stimulation on respiratory function for convalescent stroke patients.Methods From October, 2017 to July, 2018, 27 convalescent stroke patients were randomly divided into control group (n = 14) and observation group (n = 13). Both groups received routine rehabilitation, while the observation group accepted external phrenic nerve electrical stimulation additionaly. Their ventilation and respiratory muscle strength were measured before and four weeks after treatment. Results The forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1st second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) improved in both groups after treatment (t > 5.075, Z = -3.366, P < 0.001), and improved more in FVC, FEV1, PEF and MIP in the observation group than in the control group (t > 0.921, Z = -2.746, P < 0.05). Conclusion External phrenic nerve electrical stimulation can improve ventilation and inspiratory muscle strength for convalescent stroke patients.
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Advance in Exercise Prescription to Improve Muscular Strength and Cardiorespiratory Function for Older Adult (review)
LI Ai-jun, GAO Rui-yao, ZHENG Qi-wei, GAO Qian-jin
   2017, 23 (2): 179-184.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2017.02.012
Abstract1234)      PDF(pc) (1122KB)(1418)       Save
Aging is associated with declines of the muscular strength and cardiorespiratory functions, resulting in an impaired capacity to perform daily activities. Frailty is a clinical geriatric syndrome characterized by decreases in the biological functional reserve and resistance to stressors, which puts older individuals at special risk of disability. To counteract the muscular strength and cardiorespiratory functions declines associated with aging, as well as to prevent and treat the frailty syndrome, the strength and endurance training seems to be an effective strategy to improve muscular strength and endurance performance. This article reviewed the exercise prescription in health and frail elderly subjects according to the current situation of the researches about muscular strength and cardiorespiratory function training. Based on the results found, for the healthy older adults, strength training should be performed at moderate- to high-intensity (60%-80% of 1 RM ), and moderate volume (2-3 sets per exercise, 2-3 times/week ). Also, endurance training should be performed at moderate- to high-intensity (60%-85% of VO2max), and moderat volume (25-40 min). The frail older adults should exercise 2-3 times a week, for 45-60 min. Strength, endurance, flexibility, and balance training components should be incorporated, and strength and balance training should be emphasized.
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Occupational Condition of Physiotherapists in Seven Countries
WANG Ying, ZHU Zhao-jin, ZHU Yi
   2018, 24 (5): 615-620.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2018.05.024
Abstract1189)      PDF(pc) (1144KB)(1410)       Save
After retrieving the databases, as well as the official websites of institutes and administrations of physiotherapists, the qualifications, working conditions and career development in different countries, such as United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, England, Ireland and South Africa, were investigated and analyzed, which may give some implication for the improvement of physiotherapists system in China.
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Effect of Two Kinds of Kinesio Taping Methods on Shoulder Pain in Hemiplegic Patients with Stroke during Spasm Period
LI Wei, LI Dan, ZHAO Yi-lian, ZHANG Rong, XU Hui-min, ZHOU Mi-juan, MOU Yang
   2018, 24 (2): 184-190.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2018.02.013
Abstract1581)      PDF(pc) (2418KB)(1394)       Save
Objective To observe the effect of two kinds of Kinesio taping methods on shoulder pain in hemiplegic patients with stroke during spasm period.Methods From October, 2015 to September, 2017, 75 stroke hemiplegic patients with shoulder pain during spasm period were randomly divided into group A (n=25), group B (n=25) and control group (n=25). Three groups were given conventional treatment, and group A and group B received two kinds of Kinesio taping methods, respectively. Before and four weeks after treatment, the shoulder pain was assessed with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), the motor function of upper limb was assessed with Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), and their activities of daily living was assessed with modified Barthel Index (MBI).Results After treatment, the score of VAS significantly decreased in all groups (P<0.001), and was lower in groups A and B than in the control group (P<0.05), especially in group A (P<0.01); the scores of FMA and MBI significantly increased (P<0.001), and was higher in groups A and B than in the control group (P<0.05), especially in group A (P<0.05).Conclusion Kinesio taping combined with rehabilitation training for the treatment of stroke patients following hemiplegia during spasm period can relieve the shoulder pain and improve the motor function of upper limb and activi ties of daily living. The curative effect varies with different taping methods.
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Central Pathways Controlling for Micturition (review)
CONG Hui-ling;LIAO Li-min
   2008, 14 (11): 1011-1013.  
Abstract1332)      PDF(pc) (120KB)(1394)       Save
Micturition is a complicated physiological activity and is controlled by many central pathways. With the application of positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), people can observe the activity of the brain during the course of micturition and urinary continence. This paper will review the physiological micturition and central pathways controlling for micturition.
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   2010, 16 (11): 1055-1056.  
Abstract734)      PDF(pc) (1325KB)(1383)       Save
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Development of Hand Function Rehabilitation System Based on Motor Imagery Brain-computer Interface
ZHANG Tao, YANG Bang-hua, DUAN Kai-wen, TANG Jian-zhen, HAN Xu
   2017, 23 (1): 4-9.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2017.01.002
Abstract1304)      PDF(pc) (1764KB)(1382)       Save
This paper introduced a hand function rehabilitation system based on motor imagery (MI) brain-computer interface for hand function rehabilitation of stroke patients. The rehabilitation system contains three subsystems. Offline training subsystem displays the blank screen, a left or right hand movement video and arrow in turn, which respectively reminders patients to rest and make preparations for MI and instruct them how to do MI, and be doing MI. Finally, the patients' electroephalography (EEG) signals are acquired and processed to generate a recognition model. Model update online training subsystem presents the black screen and a left or right arrow, the meanings of which are the same as those in offline training subsystem. Then the acquired EEG signals are analyzed according to the established recognition model. Next, the analysis result is derived to control the hand movement video to be played. The video can also act as a visual feedback, which makes patients' EEG signals easier to be recognized. The updated and more effective recognition model is built at last. Virtual reality (VR) online training subsystem constructs 3D grid models of VR scene, a 3D man model and its hand animations in the 3Dmax. Then, all of them are imported into Unity3D. The control methods of the animations are also designed in Unity3D. In the end, the patients' EEG signals are analyzed according to the updated recognition model, thus controlling the hand movements of the 3D man in real time. The developed system has many characteristics, such as multilevel training and more immersion, which hopefully promotes the plasticity of central nervous system. The designed system provides new treatments for post-stroke hand function rehabilitation and further lays the foundation for family-mode rehabilitation.
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Advance in Traditional Chinese Medicine for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Effects and Mechanisms (review)
WEI Jing-xiang, WANG Yong-tang, LU Xiu-min
   2017, 23 (1): 54-58.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2017.01.013
Abstract1127)      PDF(pc) (983KB)(1323)       Save
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) refers to the sudden, threatening or catastrophic life events leading to delay and long-term persistence of mental disorders. Hippocampus, amygdala, prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) may be involved in PTSD, but the exact pathogenesis is not entirely clear. Traditional Chinese Medicine, including Chinese herbs, acupuncture and emotion-thought therapy, are considered as the main methods for PTSD, which may play a role in neuroprotection, adjustment of learning-memory, anti-stress, adjusting HPA, etc.
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Treatments and Rehabilitation for Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (review)
LIN Wei, CHEN Ning-yuan
   2017, 23 (2): 173-178.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2017.02.011
Abstract1602)      PDF(pc) (1683KB)(1317)       Save
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare neurodegenerative disease. The etiology and pathogenesis are still unclear. Nowadays there is a lack of an effective molecular marker which can effectively assist the early diagnosis and prognosis of this disease. This article reviewed the pathological anatomy, diagnostic criteria, subtypes and clinical manifestations, imaging studies, scales evaluation, treatment and rehabilitation, complications and risk factors of PSP. Patients with PSP should be managed by a multidisciplinary team. The management of PSP should include the rehabilitation of disorder and palliative treatment, as well as support and education, to improve the quality of life for patients and their caregivers.
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Comparison of Ways of Extubation after Tracheotomy
XIA Jia-chuan, LUO Zhong-chun, GUO Xiang-kui, DENG Qiang, YANG Xue, YE Xi
   2018, 24 (9): 1067-1071.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2018.09.016
Abstract779)      PDF(pc) (1113KB)(1238)       Save
Objective To optimize the ways of extubation after tracheotomy.Methods From August, 2016 to April, 2018, 118 patients after tracheotomy for brain injury were divided into early extubation group (n=74) and conventional extubation group (n=44). The success rate and tolerance of extubation were compared, and the biochemical markers of blood were tested before and seven days after extubation. The early extubation group was divided into disposable extubation group (n=37) and occlusion tube-extubation group (n=37), and their success rates of extubation were compared.Results There was no significant difference in success rate between the early extubation group and the conventional extubation group (χ2=0.016, P>0.05). The tolerance was less in the early extubation group on the first day of extubation (χ2=4.909, P<0.05), and it was not different seven days and 15 days after extubation (χ2<1.995, P>0.05). The procalcitonin, hypersensitive C reactive protein and white blood cell count decreased (t>2.680, P<0.05), and hemoglobin and albumin increased seven days after extubation (t>11.620, P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the success rate between the disposable extubation group and the occlusion tube-extubation group (χ2<2.902, P>0.05).Conclusion Satisfactory cough and deglutition reflex are the core indexes of successful extubation, other indications may not influence on the success of extubation but on tolerance. Extubation may benefit to control the complications of tracheotomy. The disposable extubation is more recommended.
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