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Application of sensory integration therapy in cerebral palsy rehabilitation: a systematic review
YU Xinlu, LI Xin, YANG Tingting, ZHANG Bo, FENG Yuxia, PANG Wei
Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice    2022, 28 (2): 183-189.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2022.02.008
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Objective To systematically review the research progress of sensory integration therapy in the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy. Methods The literatures related to the application of sensory integration therapy in the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy was retrieved from Web of Sciences, PubMed, CNKI, Wanfang data, and VIP databases until November 27, 2021, using subject search. And the contents of the literatures were extracted to review the implementation plan of sensory integration therapy and the effectiveness of its application in the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy. Results Six literatures were included. The main focus was on the research of sensory integration therapy on postural control, gross motor function, intelligence level and cognitive function, and treatment modalities in children with cerebral palsy. Conclusion Sensory integration therapy is effective on motor function, posture control and intelligence in children with cerebral palsy. To maximize the effect of sensory integration therapy, a suitable rehabilitation treatment plan should be formulated according to the degree of sensory integration disorder and the age, gender and tolerance of children.

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Systematic implementation of World Health Organization rehabilitation competency framework in rehabilitation: conceptual framework, approaches and application
QIU Zhuoying, KWOK Joseph Kin Fun, SUN Hongwei, WU Shicai, LÜ Jun, YAO Meilin, WANG Guoxiang, QIU Fubing, LU Yan, XU Guangxu, JI Linhong, JING Qi, CHEN Di, HAO Chuanping, LI Anqiao, WANG Shaopu, XIAO Xiaofei
Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice    2022, 28 (3): 265-274.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2022.03.002
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Objective To systematically analyze the World Health Organization Rehabilitation Competency Framework (RCF) theoretical framework, methodology and its application in the field of rehabilitation.Methods We systematically analyzed RCF conceptual framework and key characteristics, and discussed how to apply the RCF in the fields of human resource planning, education program and curriculum system, and vocational competency standards and certification criteria for rehabilitation human resources.Results The RCF encompasses five domains, naming practice, professionalism, learning and development, management and leadership, and research. Rehabilitation professionals' performance is the result of the interaction of their core values and beliefs, competencies, activities, knowledge, and skills. The RCF can be used to plan rehabilitation human resources, establish competency-based rehabilitation education programs and curriculum systems, and develop competency certification standards and licensure accreditation standards.Conclusion This study analyzed background, content and implementation framework of RCF, and systematically discussed the theories and methods related to how to use the RCF to construct national rehabilitation human resources development plans, develop rehabilitation education programs and curriculum systems based on the RCF, and establish certification and assessment standards for rehabilitation human resources.
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Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice    2022, 28 (3): 249-264.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2022.03.001
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Effect of physical therapy on neuromuscular control dysfunction for chronic ankle instability: a systematic review
SHI Xiaojian,RONG Jifeng,CAI Bin,LIU Yu,HAN Jia
Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice    2022, 28 (2): 132-143.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2022.02.002
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Objective To identify the effectiveness of physical therapy on neuromuscular control dysfunction of chronic ankle instability (CAI). Methods CAI physiotherapy-related systematic reviews, meta-analysis, randomized controlled studies and case-controlled studies were systematically searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, PEDro, EBSCO and CNKI from October 1st, 2010 to October 1st, 2020. After quality assessment, the research evidence regarding certain intervention was then graded according to the Oxford Center for Evidence-based Medicine. Results A total of 20 articles were included. Intervention based on unstable plane exercise training could significantly improve lower limb balance control ability (Ⅰ A) and muscle strength (Ⅱ A) for CAI patients. The efficiency of exercise-based intervention could be further raised (Ⅱ C) with the aid of external equipment, but either the benefits in muscle reaction (Ⅲ C) or proprioception (Ⅱ D) was limited. Six sessions or more of manual therapy could be used to enhance the balance ability of the lower limbs (Ⅱ B), while taping failed to provide improvements in ankle proprioception in short period or immediately (Ⅰ A). Conclusion Unstable plane training-based therapeutic exercise and manual therapy could effectively enhance the neuromuscular control with high-quality evidence supporting, which can be primary interventions for CAI patients. Meanwhile, taping and other external devices could be used as adjunct methods to improve the efficiency of physiotherapy program, while there is currently no evidence to support the application of modality treatment in neuromuscular control of CAI.

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Conceptual framework and its application of World Health Organization rehabilitation competency framework in rehabilitation human resource management
WU Fang, JING Qi, QIU Zhuoying, SUN Hongwei, LI Anqiao, DUAN Mingxue, GAO Qianqian, CAI Weiqin, ZHENG Wengui
Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice    2022, 28 (3): 275-284.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2022.03.003
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Objective To explore the application and method of World Health Organization Rehabilitation Competency Framework (RCF) in rehabilitation human resource management, and provide theoretical and practical reference for rehabilitation human resource management.Methods Based on the International Standard Classification of Occupations issued by the International Labour Organization, the application scope of RCF was systematically analyzed. The theoretical framework of rehabilitation human resource management based on RCF was constructed in combination with competency-based human resource management framework. On this basis, taking rehabilitation nurses as an example, the corresponding management methods and paths are proposed from four aspects of human resource management, including career management, recruitment and selection, training and development, and performance appraisal and salary management.Results Based on RCF, the theoretical framework of human resource management for rehabilitation nursing positions was constructed, and the main contents and processes of human resource management based on RCF were clarified from four aspects: recruitment and selection, training and development, performance appraisal and salary management, and career management. Occupational competency of rehabilitation professionals in International Standard Classification of Occupations was analyzed by RCF.Conclusion The rehabilitation competency framework constructed by WHO can be used to supplement the responsibilities of rehabilitation-related professionals in the International Standard Classification of Occupations issued by the International Labour Organization. RCF serves as a tool for practice managers and rehabilitation professionals in identifying selection criteria, learning objectives, and professional title assessment criteria. It can also be used in recruitment and selection, training and development, performance appraisal, salary management and career management in the field of rehabilitation human resource management.
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Development of programmes and curriculum of physical therapy at undergraduate level using ICF and rehabilitation competency framework
XIAO Xiaofei, QIU Zhuoying, SUN Hongwei, LI Anqiao
Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice    2022, 28 (3): 295-305.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2022.03.005
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Objective To develop programmes and curriculum of physical therapy competency for undergraduate education for the training of competent physical therapy.Methods Using World Health Organization Rehabilitation Competency Framework (RCF) and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as framework, a discipline of physical therapy, and programmes and curriculum for undergraduate education were developed.Results The basic concepts of rehabilitation and disability, laws, regulations and ethics and physical therapy of functioning and disability were explored within RCF. The contents, core values and beliefs of physical therapy competencies were developed using RCF. Results -oriented and backward strategy was used to develop programmes and curriculum of undergraduate education in physical therapy based on competency. Conclusion The theory of ICF and RCF is important for developing programmes and curriculum of physical therapy competency. Based on RCF, the physical therapy competency domain, principles, strategies and educational framework for undergraduate education in physical therapy are constructed, helping for developing competency-based undergraduate education standards for physical therapy and professional competency standards in China.
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Effect of intensive isometric strength training of hip adductor on functional ankle instability
YU Hui,CHEN Ziyan,DAI Ruixiang,WANG Xiaodong
Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice    2022, 28 (2): 125-131.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2022.02.001
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Objective To explore the effect of intensive hip adductor isometric strength training on the balance ability of functional ankle joint instability. Methods From November, 2019 to January, 2020, 18 college students with functional ankle instability were recruited from a university in Shenzhen and randomly divided into control group (n = 9) and experimental group (n = 9). Both groups received ankle stability training, and the experimental group received isometric muscle strength training of hip adductor in addition, one hour a time, three times a week, for four weeks. The Cumberland Ankle Instability Assessment Questionnaire (CAIT), Y Balance Test (YBT), Balance-check balance equipment and Back-check hip adductor maximum isometric strength test were performed before and after training. Results After training, the scores of CAIT, YBT and balance-check increased in both groups (t > 2.540, P < 0.05); the strength of adductor hip muscle significantly increased in the experimental group (t = 8.485, P < 0.001). The d-value of CAIT score, YBT distance, the score of Balance-check, and the strength of adductor hip muscle were more in the experimental group than in the control group (t > 2.168, P < 0.05); the d-value of the average rotation speed, the maximum rotation speed and the balance level were less in the experimental group than in the control group (t > 2.804, P < 0.05). Conclusion Hip adductor isometric muscle strength training may promote the recovery of the balance after functional ankle instability.

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Relationship of proprioception, cutaneous sensitivity and strength to postural stability among older adults
WANG Qi,MAO Min,SUN Wei,SONG Qipeng
Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice    2022, 28 (4): 373-378.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2022.04.001
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Objective To explore the impacts of proprioception, cutaneous sensitivity and strength on dynamic and static postural stability.Methods From June to November, 2020, a total of 164 elderly participated in this study. Independent parameters included proprioception of knee flexion/extension and ankle dorsi/plantar flexion with proprioception measurement; the cutaneous sensitivity of great toe, first and fifth metatarsals, arch, and heel with monofilament; and strength of ankle dorsi/plantar flexion and hip abduction with isokinetic test. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and center of pressure (COP)-based postural stability tests were conducted to represent dynamic and static postural stability. Exploratory factor and multivariable linear regression analyses were used to explore the relationship of each generated factor to postural stability outcomes.Results Proprioception was significantly correlated to the score of BBS (r=-0.449, P<0.001) and the root mean square (RMS) of COP in mediolateral direction (r=0.254, P=0.004). Cutaneous sensitivity was significantly correlated to the RMS of COP in the anteroposterior direction (r=0.281, P=0.002). Strength was significantly correlated to the score of BBS (r=0.493, P<0.001).Conclusion Proprioception and strength are related to dynamic postural stability, while proprioception and cutaneous sensitivity are associated with static postural stability.

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Development of diagnosis, assessment and intervention solution for speech fluency disorder using WHO-FICs
YIN Minmin,LING Xing,YANG Yaru,DAI Hengyu,GE Shengnan,HUANG Zhaoming
Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice    2022, 28 (6): 630-636.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2022.06.002
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Objective To explore the diagnoses of diseases and functioning of speech fluency disorder, analyze the main assessment content, and construct framework of intervention solution based on International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision (ICD-11), International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and International Classification of Health Interventions (ICHIβ-3). Methods The diagnoses of diseases and functioning was discussed with ICD-11 and ICF. The assessment tools were analyzed with ICF. A holistic intervention solution was constructed with ICF and ICHIβ-3. Results Speech fluency disorder is classified as 6A01.1 developmental speech fluency disorder for ICD-11. The related diseases include 6A01.0 developmental speech sound disorder, 6A01.2 developmental language disorder, cerebral palsy, MA80.0 aphasia, MA80.1 dysphasia and MA80.2 dysarthria, etc. For ICF, the categories related to speech fluency disorder might be s3 structures invovled in voice and speech; b3 voice and speech functions, especially b330 fluency and rhythm of speech functions; d1 learning and applying knowledge, d3 communication, especially d330 speaking and d355 discussion, d7 interpersonal interactions and relationships, and d9 community, social and civic life. A holistic intervention solution for speech fluency disorder was developed, involving in body structure, body function, activities and participation, and environmental factors, including assessment, training and treatment, educational counseling, and psychological and social support, etc. Conclusion A framework of diagnosis, assessment and rehabilitation has been constructed for speech fluency disorder.

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Application of ICF in occupational therapy: conceptual framework and approaches
YANG Xiaolong,YANG Yaru,QIU Fubing,GUO Fengyi,WONG Kam Man,CAO Lei,ZHANG Tiantian,SONG Weiqun
Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice    2022, 28 (6): 621-629.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2022.06.001
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Objective To study the conceptual framework and methodological system of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in occupational therapy and its systematic implementation in clinical practice. Methods Based on the ICF theory and the policy documents of the World Federation of Occupational Therapists, the conceptual framework of occupational therapy and the systematic implementation in clinical settings based on the ICF framework were analyzed. Results This study constructed a conceptual framework and approach for occupational therapy based on ICF, and clarified the goals, principles, and implementation methods of integrated occupational therapy interventions in rehabilitation services. The goal of occupational therapy interventions was to improve the individual activity and participation through multidisciplinary and cross-cutting implementation of integrated occupational therapy programs to optimize functioning. Occupational therapy was based on the bio-psycho-social model, adhered to the principles of person-centeredness and functioning orientation, and implemented individualized intervention programs in different context. In clinical practice, it was recommended to follow ICF-based standardized process and systematically use World Health Organization Family International Classifications: functioning and unmet needs analysis using ICHI; functional classification, assessment and coding using ICF; disease classification, diagnosis and coding using ICD; intervention of occupational therapies using ICHI to build a systematic occupational therapy service system. Conclusion An ICF-based occupational therapy concept and methodological system has been built, a comprehensive clinical occupational therapy implementation model has been established, the goal of activity and participation oriented occupational therapy interventions has been clarified, and the systematic, structured, standardized and refined level of occupational therapy has been enhanced.

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Effects of integrated orthopedic rehabilitation pathway on motor function after total knee arthroplasty
LI Ran, DU Jubao, CAO Guanglei, LI Zheng, LI Ziyi, GE Yali, QIAN Long
Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice    2022, 28 (2): 144-149.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2022.02.003
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Objective To study the effects of integrated orthopedic rehabilitation pathway on motor function in six months after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), including pain, stiffness, range of motion and muscle strength, etc. Methods From March, 2016 to March, 2019, 180 patients who underwent TKA and treated with integrated orthopedic rehabilitation pathway were enrolled. Age, gender, operation time, time of follow-up, the scores of Hospital for Special Surgery-Knee Scale (HSS-KS) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) at preoperative/postoperative/one-month after operation/three-month after operation/six-month after operation time points were collected. The sub items, such as muscle strength, range of motion, flexion deformity, pain, stiffness, functional difficulty were primarily focused on. Results A total of 42 patients were followed up for three months and 22 patients were followed up for six months. There was no significant difference in the scores of HSS-KS and WOMAC before and after operation (P > 0.05). Within three months after operation, the HSS-KS scores gradually increased (P < 0.05) and the WOMAC scores gradually decreased (P < 0.05). The active knee flexion range of motion and knee extensor muscle strength scores of HSS-KS significantly decreased after operation (P < 0.05), and gradually recovered one month and three months after operation (P < 0.05). The flexion deformity scores of HSS-KS increased after operation (P < 0.05), decreased one month after operation (P < 0.05), and got a trend of incensement again three months after operation. The pain score of WOMAC decreased continuously within three months after operation (P < 0.05); the stiffness score of WOMAC did not change after operation (P > 0.05), decreased significantly one month after operation (P < 0.05), and did not change three months after operation (P > 0.05). The degree of functional difficulty of WOMAC decreased after operation (P < 0.05), and improved continuously within six months after operation (P < 0.05). Conclusion The overall function after TKA shows a trend of improvement within three months, and there is no obvious improvement from three to six months after operation. The flexion deformity score showed a downward trend in one month after operation, and it could be improved again after strengthening rehabilitation, which needs more attention in the postoperative rehabilitation.

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Progress of cellular growth factors in neurorehabilitation and neuroplasticity
LI Xiaokun,LIU Xu,LIU Jianhua,RAO Zhiheng,Yongde LUO,CHEN Keyang,ZHANG Tong
Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice    2022, 28 (2): 175-182.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2021.00.005
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With potent biological activities, cellular growth factors are polypeptide factors that primarily stimulate cell growth and proliferation. They participate in the regulation of not only normal physiological functions such as human embryonic development and cell growth, but also neurorehabilitation and neuroplasticity in pathological processes such as nerve injury and recovery. Specifically, cellular growth factors have been shown to promote neuron survival, facilitate nerve regeneration and regulate synaptic plasticity, promote cell differentiation/vascular regeneration and modulate the microenvironment, promote nerve fiber myelination and improve nerve conduction. This review summarized current knowledge on the roles and various growth factors in neurorehabilitation and neuroplasticity, providing an update on potential clinical application of cellular growth factors in the field of neural rehabilitation.

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Effect of spinal manipulation therapy on chronic nonspecific neck pain: a meta-analysis
ZHENG Wei,SUN Libing,HAO Chuanping,HUANG Wenqi,YOU Jing,GUO Yanhua
Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice    2022, 28 (2): 150-164.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2022.02.004
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Objective To evaluate the effects of spinal manipulation therapy (SMT) on chronic nonspecific neck pain (CNSNP) by using World Health Organization Family International Classifications (WHO-FICs). Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the effects of SMT on CNSNP were searched from PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, EBSCO, CBM and CNKI from database establishment to December 31st, 2021. At least two researchers extracted the data. Cochrane bias risk assessment tool and Physiotherapy Evidence Database Scale were used to evaluate the quality of the included articles. Revman 5.4 software and Stata 16.0 software were used for meta-analyses and publication bias analysis respectively. Results A total of 15 RCTs that represented 1 067 participants were evaluated. In terms of body functions, compared with the control group, SMT significantly reduced Visual Analog Score for pain (MD = -0.85, 95%CI -1.06 to -0.63, P < 0.00001) and Numerical Rating Scale (MD = -0.92, 95%CI -1.29 to -0.55, P < 0.001), increased pressure pain thresholds (SMD = 0.67, 95%CI 0.47 to 0.86, P < 0.001), cervical range of motion (ROM) of flexion/extension (SMD = 0.51, 95%CI 0.33 to 0.68, P < 0.001) and rotation (SMD = 0.20, 95%CI 0.01 to 0.38, P = 0.04), improved root mean square of cervical muscles electromygraphy (MD = 2.17, 95%CI 0.06 to 4.29, P = 0.04), but not significantly in cervical ROM of lateral flexion (SMD = 0.19, 95%CI -0.00 to 0.38, P = 0.06), cervical strength (SMD = -0.18, 95%CI -0.84 to 0.49, P = 0.60) and endurance (SMD = 0.18, 95%CI -0.39 to 0.75, P = 0.53). In term of activities and participation, SMT significantly improved cervical disability (MD = -0.96, 95%CI -1.55 to -0.38, P = 0.001), but not significantly in health status of patients with CNSNP (SMD = 0.08, 95%CI -0.03 to 0.20, P = 0.15). Conclusion SMT could improve pain intensity, pain sensitivity, cervical ROM and disability in patients with CNSNP, but its efficacy on muscle function, proprioception and health status is unclear.

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Prediction models of outcome for patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness: a systematic review
YU Kuai,ZHANG Li,YE Xiangming
Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice    2022, 28 (2): 190-198.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2022.02.009
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Objective To systematicly evaluate the constituent factors and accuracy of prediction models of outcome for patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness. Methods Articles about prediction models of outcome for patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness were retrieved from PubMed, Web of Science, CNKI and Wanfang Data until September 30th, 2021. The authors, publishing times, subjects, predictive indicators, outcomes and conclusions were extracted. Results A total of 4 313 articles were returned and 37 included, comprising randomized controlled trials and cohort studies, which published mainly from 2012 to 2021. The subjects were patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness, and their predictions consisted of clinical assessment scales, neuroimaging, neuroelectrophysiology and laboratory indicators. Conclusion Prediction models may be valuable for the long-term outcomes of patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness. Most of the current prediction models are composed of only a limited number of technical means, and the accuracy is uneven. Coma Recovery Scale-revised, default mode network and multiple evoked potentials-related prediction models are accurate, but lack a unified adaptation standard.

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Static balance and limits of stability in patients with cervical vertigo
LUO Wei,HUANG Zhirui,CAO Zhixian,HUANG Zhen,MIN Yu,ZHONG Tao
Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice    2022, 28 (2): 165-169.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2022.02.005
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Objective To analyze the characteristics of static balance and limits of stability (LOS) in patients with cervical vertigo (CV). Methods From January, 2020 to August, 2021, 30 CV patients in our hospital (vertigo group) and 30 healthy people (control group) were selected and tested with PRO-KIN system, under the conditions of eyes open and closed. The standard deviation of the vertical and horizontal amplitude, the mean of vertical and horizontal sway velocities, the area of the movement, the length of the movement, and LOS at eight directions, The Romberg ratios of the area and the length were caculated. Results All the indicators of the static balance were higher under eyes closed than under eyes open in both groups (|Z| > 2.138, P < 0.05); whether under the eyes open or closed, the static balance indicators were higher in the vertigo group than in the control group (|Z| > 2.004, P < 0.05), except for the mean of horizontal sway velocities (|Z| < 1.026, P > 0.05). The LOS and total LOS completion percentage in the front (upper right, right above, upper left) were lower in the vertigo group than in the control group (|Z| > 2.240, P < 0.05). Conclusion The static balance abilities decrease for CV patients, and the balance control depends on visual compensation. The range of LOS reduces, means a higher risk of falling.

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Isokinetic muscle strength of knee for patients with chondromalacia patellae
ZHONG Jiaman,HUANG Jingjie,LIU Fuyifei,ZHAO Shiting,XU Wenxia,YANG Junxing
Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice    2022, 28 (4): 379-383.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2022.04.002
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Objective To analyze the characteristics of the muscle strength around the knee joint of chondromalacia patellae patients, and to explore the difference with normal people.Methods In March, 2021, 70 knee-onset chondromalacia patellae patients (experimental group) and 35 normal people (control group) were measured isokinetic muscle strength of flexion and extension of knee in angular velocities of 60°/s and 180°/s.Results At 60°/s and 180°/s, the peak torque, the peak torque-to-weight ratio and the total work of the flexor and extensor muscles on the affected side in the experimental group were lower than that of the control group (U > 1097.0, P<0.001). The peak torque, the peak torque-to-weight ratio and the total work of the flexor and extensor muscles at 60°/s and extensor muscles at 180°/s were lower on the affected side than on the healthy side in the experimental group (|Z| > 2.121, P<0.05). The peak torque ratios at 60°/s and 180°/s were more in the affected knees than in the healthy knees of experimental group and in the control group (U > 1810.0, |Z| >3.691, P<0.01).Conclusion The explosive force and endurance of the knee flexor and extensor has weakened in patients with chondromalacia patellae, and there is imbalance in knee joint muscle strength.

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Effects of upper limb robot-assisted training on cognition and upper limb motor function for subacute stroke patients
SU Lili,FANG Xiaoyang,LIN Ling,LI Haiyan
Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice    2022, 28 (5): 508-514.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2022.05.003
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Objective To investigate the effects of upper limb robot-assisted training on cognitive function, upper limb motor function and activity of daily living for subacute stroke patients. Methods From September, 2019 to September, 2020, 65 subacute stroke hemiplegic patients with cognitive impairment were randomly divided into control group (n = 32, two cases dropped) and experimental group (n = 33, three cases dropped). Both groups accepted conventional occupational therapy; and then, the control group accepted conventional cognitive training, while the experimental group accepted upper limb robot-assisted training, for four weeks. They were assessed with Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremities (FMA-UE) and modified Barthel Index (MBI) before and after treatment. Results The scores of MoCA, MMSE, FMA-UE and MBI improved after treatment in both groups (t > 22.11, Z > 4.79, P < 0.001), the MoCA total score and some item-scores, MMSE total score and some item-scores, FMA-UE total score and the score of arm, and score of MBI improved more in the experimental group than in the control group (t > 2.06, Z > 3.19, P < 0.05). Conclusion Upper limb robot-assisted training could facilitate to improve the cognitive function, upper limb motor function and activities of daily living in subacute stroke patients.

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Effect of physical activity on neurocognitive function of overweight children: a systematic review
ZHONG Xiaoke,ZHANG Ji,WANG Zhipeng,JIANG Changhao
Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice    2022, 28 (4): 421-428.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2022.04.008
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Objective To explore the affect of physical activity on neurocognitive function of overweight children.Methods The literatures about the effect of physical activity on neurocognitive function of overweight children were retrieved with subjected retrieval method in CNKI, VIP, Wanfang database, PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO databases from January, 2000 to January, 2022. The authors, countries, published years, ages of subjects, research methods, intervention time, measurement tools and measurement indicators were extracted.Results Twelve articles were selected finally. These articles came from United States, Italy, Belgium and China, were mainly published in journals of psychology, clinical medicine, neuroscience, physical education. The study design included randomized controlled trials and pre-post-trial. The mean PEDro score was 6.67. The types of physical activity included fitness, skills and sports activities. The overweight children participating in physical activities could benefit from cognition and brain plasticity. On the cognition, physical activity could improve attention, memory, inhibitory control, working memory and cognitive flexibility. In terms of brain plasticity, physical activity could improve the integrity of brain white matter, increase hippocampal volume, enhance brain activation and brain network connectivity.Conclusion Physical activity is a simple and effective form of exercise. It can improve not only attention, memory, executive function and other cognitive functions, but also brain structure and brain function in overweight children. The mechanism of cognition, the interaction between physical activity and other factors, and the dose-relationship between physical activity and cognitive benefits still need to be explored in the future.

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Features in digitorum muscular tension and shear-wave elastography in hemiplegic patients with stroke before and after manual digitorum sensory stimulation
HE Ziyan,TANG Xiaoxiao,TIAN Yaxing,JIANG Fan,KAN Xiuli,SHEN Xianshan,MAO Jing,XU Jun,LIU Xue,WU Jianxian,WU Tingting,HONG Yongfeng
Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice    2022, 28 (2): 204-211.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2022.02.011
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Objective To demonstrate the changes in flexor digitorum and extensor digitorum tension in the affected hands with shear-wave elastography (SWE) before and after manual digitorum sensory stimulation (MDSS) in hemiplegic patients with stroke. Methods A total of 51 hemiplegic post-stroke inpatients in the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine in Second Hospital of Anhui Medical University from April to June, 2020, underwent MDSS completed by a researcher who used a bare thumb and index finger to squeeze each nail bed as well as the sides of each fingertip in the affected hand. The stimulation intensity was the minimum that could cause finger extension without obvious pain, and the interval between two stimulations was five to ten seconds. Muscular tension of the flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus, flexor pollicis longus and extensor digitorum were assessed with modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) and shear-wave velocity (SWV) of SWE on the affected side before and immediately after MDSS. MAS score was -1 as low muscular tension. Results The MAS scores of all the muscles significantly reduced after MDSS (|Z| > 2.843, P < 0.001); while the changes of SWV were not significantly in all the muscles with initially MAS score of 0 or -1 (t < 1.052, P > 0.05), and it reduced in those muscles with initial MAS scores of one to three (t > 2.672, P < 0.05). The SWV were positively correlated with the MAS scores both before and after MDSS (r > 0.334, P < 0.05). Conclusion MDSS can effectively, immediately, and safely relieves muscle spasms of the flexor digitorum and facilitate active finger extension in the affected hand for hemiplegic patients with stroke. SWE is useful for quantitatively and objectively evaluating muscular tension in the affected hand for hemiplegic patients with stroke.

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Effect of cranial electrotherapy stimulation on mild cognitive impairment for older adults
SHI Haonan,XIE Ying,GUI Peijun,ZHANG Bo,CHEN Chen
Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice    2022, 28 (3): 346-349.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-9771.2022.03.011
Abstract216)   HTML23)    PDF (1047KB)(63)      
Objective To explore the effect of cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) on cognitive function for old patients with mild cognitive impairment.Methods A total of 40 old inpatients with mild cognitive impairment in 2018 and 2019 were randomly divided into control group (n = 20) and treatment group (n = 20). Both groups accepted routine medication (without cognitive drugs), and the treatment group accepted CES in addition, for eight weeks. They were assessed with modified Barthel Index (MBI) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) by two researchers single-blind before treatment, and four and eight weeks after treatment. The control group accepted free CES after trial.Results For MoCA score, the main effect was significant in time (F = 5.603, P = 0.007), not significant in group (F = 2.160, P = 0.150), and the effect of interaction was significant (F = 9.160, P < 0.001), which was more in the treatment group than in the control group. For MBI score, the main effects were not significant both in time (F = 0.322, P = 0.726) and in group (F = 0.009, P = 0.925), nor the effect of interaction (F = 0.322, P = 0.726). No adverse reactions occurred during CES intervention.Conclusion CES may be effective on mild cognitive impairment in old patients.
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